Lua Nova , n. Rio de Janeiro: Tempo Brasileiro, Researching organizational discourse. Resource mobilization theory and the study of social movements. Annual Review of Sociology , v. Acesso em: 23 nov. Resource mobilization and social movements: a partial theory. The American Journal of Sociology , v. TVA and the grass roots : a study in the sociology of formal organization.
In: Anais do Eneo The conditions of fruitfulness of theorizing about mechanisms in social science. Philosophy of the Social Sciences , v. Leadership of public bureaucracies : the administrator as conservator. Londres: M. Sharpe, Our growth level was less, our unemployment higher, our relative trading position was in decline and our share of global output falling. What makes it so difficult for the UNHCR is that whilst the number of refugees is rising, the resources required by the UN refugee organisation to coordinate the aid are falling.
That is why its reduced legitimacy and its diminished justification and credibility in the eyes of the people must be taken seriously. Synonyms Synonyms Spanish for "menguar":. Spanish abajar abaratar abatirse acabar achicar achiquitar agotarse aminorar apear arriar bajar bajarse caer cansarse debilitarse. Context sentences Context sentences for "menguar" in English These sentences come from external sources and may not be accurate.
More by bab. Spanish menearse menearse provocativamente menearse sin sentido meneo menester menesteroso menestra menguado menguar menguar luna menguar meningitis meningitis por escherichia coli menisco menopausia menopausia prematura menor menor de edad menores de edad menorquina menorquinas Have a look at the German- English dictionary by bab.
Hangman Hangman Fancy a game? It's just, you know, teachers already work so hard and spend so much of their own time on planning, and so this was a way to make it easier. As the book was translated into Chinese, and then French, all the Spanish Language teachers were like, "what about us? And then once we began conversations with the translation team, Aparicio Publishing, and also with some of the Spanish Language educators and coaches that we assembled as an advisory team, we talked a lot about what's the same in Spanish, and what's different in Spanish in terms of the language.
So things like accent marks, for example, came up. And it became clear that it wasn't enough to just do a translation. Not just to translate the strategies verbatim from English to Spanish, but we had to really consider what other unique challenges are there to reading and writing in Spanish, and then add in strategies that would help teachers with those particular skills as they support their students.
I'm trying to think if there are any that we removed. Maybe one or two around vowels, because the vowel sounds are a little bit different. So there are a couple that we removed, and then we, of course, added some that are unique to Spanish.
So, I'm really excited about how it all turned out. Brett: And throughout this process, it was certainly Jen: Yeah, so I mean He worked very hard in AP Spanish to help me learn Spanish.
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I've unfortunately lost a lot of my language skills. So I really can't take any credit for the actual translation, but they did involve me as an adviser. So, you know, we would talk about, what was my intention behind the use of the word engagement, for example? And what did I really mean? And is it enough to say, you know there's not a direct translation, so what is exactly the right term? Is it this, which really means this? Is it this term, which really means that? So I kind of got to serve as an adviser in that way.
And then I also got to assemble a team of people. We have people who are native Spanish speakers, people who have learned Spanish as a second language, people who currently instruct in Spanish, people who have in the past instructed in Spanish, coaches who are really familiar with specific state standards around Spanish language And then some of the people who were readers, after the entire book had been translated, just reading and looking for nuance.
So for example, here's something I never would have caught myself with my minimal Spanish skills, but that was really important: So, early on, when there was a prototype of one of the chapters created, the feedback from the teachers was that the tone of the translation was very formal. And that if you look at my books, the way that my language is with children is much more friendly. And so they looked for some of the ways that the nuance of the language could be tweaked so that it had a more friendly, reader-to-reader, writer-to-writer kind of tone to the strategies and to the prompts, rather than a more formal, teacher-as-lecturer kind of a feel to it.
So things like that, things like the specific word choice, and even checking for consistency of intent. So, in reading one of my pages, does it feel like the way the translation was done, really reflects the key meaning of what I was trying to get across there.
So, today we're going to hear from Mayra, who's a coach in Texas, we're going to hear from Emily, who was a former colleague of mine at the Teachers College Reading and Writing Project, and now consults internationally actually with bilingual educators. And we're going to hear from Clarissa who's in Florida, and formally taught in Nicaragua, where she's from, and also taught in New York.
So I'm really excited to have you listen to them, and hear some of their opinions and thoughts.
And then we'll also hear from the translation team at Aparicio Publishing , some of the people, Eduardo and Patricia. Eduardo: So transadaptation is the blending or a portmanteau made of the words translation and adaptation. So what does that mean? Well, it means we have to take your lessons, all your strategies and translate them, convey the meaning of the original into Spanish.
But we have to do it in a way that emulates the English, in how accessible it is, how engaging, how attractive, both to the teacher and to the student. So it means we can't simply do a dry, direct translation of the English. We have to go through several stages of editing and versioning to come up with the Spanish that emulates the English in several ways.
So one little detail for instance, and it happens a lot with headings and titles.
"menguar" in English
One of the features in your books is a hat tip, which is clearly understood in English, but the equivalent term that is used in internet communications is not. So we had to come up with a term that will be engaging and inviting in Spanish, but also reflect the original intent of the English, which is to acknowledge your predecessors as sources you've used as inspiration. So we came up with me cito el sombrero. I tip my hat rather than just hat tip. Jen: That's a great example and I would love to introduce Patricia now.
I know Patricia And I thought we could talk a little bit about, besides just the hat tip key terms in the book that sort of just don't have a direct translation in Spanish and some of the early conversations around what would be the best way to represent the key terms or ideas in a Spanish version. So I remember we were sitting at the table with the advisers and with you and with Eduardo, we were talking about the word engagement. And what would be the best word.
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What did you end up with for engagement? Patricia: Well, engagement was one of the most challenging words. We went back and forth several times. We considered participar , like participate in or encourage or attract or dedicate, dedication to reading. But there were several terms that we consulted with our writers and translators, also stamina, for instance was one that presented some challenges. Also retelling, for instance, we also had several suggestions and we went with volver a contar. We did use the glossaries that we have gathered over the years and are widely used in educational publishing here in the United States.
We also talked to bilingual teachers and educators.
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So those are the resources that we have been using. Jen: I found all the conversations just so fascinating and interesting. I hope you found them that way too.
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I just love being part of the small bit that I was a part of it, I just loved it. I know the other consideration was dialect, which dialect of Spanish to use in the translation. Can you talk a bit about what you decided to do and what went into your decision. Patricia: Sure.
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We have used a neutral or also called a standard Latin American Spanish, which is a variation of Spanish that avoids some local terminology or expressions or grammatical constructions that are specific to one country or one region. So with that we try to reach out to the greatest number of Spanish speakers and also we try to teach to English speakers a form of Spanish that is widely understood.
So back to Eduardo. I know that as a linguist you're particularly interested in the nuance of language, differences between languages and you really helped us think about not just using all the same strategies that are in the English version in the Spanish, but rather to add some strategies to the Spanish edition that didn't exist in English. Can you share with us some examples of some of the additional lessons that are in the Spanish versions and why they were important to include.